Before you buy -- Buyer

After much research, emailing, and asking questions there is some mis-information being said about the Coolie

The mis-information deals with the following:  

DNA testing (what can be tested for and what can not) -- some Coolie breeders are saying that their Coolies
have been tested for 50 known genetic diseases and have been found genetically clean/healthy.  **I urge you
to see/read the test results, obtain a copy and present it to your veterinarian or geneticist for verification and
the age of the Coolie breed -- some say the Coolie is "the" oldest herding breed in Australia, **research
proves otherwise**.  It is certainly an old breed, but not the oldest.
coat color -- some Coolie breeders have made statements that blue eyes are an indication that the dog has
too much merle **this is not correct**;  or that the solid colored Coolies are really "blind" merles **this is also
not correct in many instances, "blind" is being used by some Coolie breeders to refer to the merle pattern that
can't be seen, the correct name is "phantom or cryptic merle"**; or that breeding the merle colored dogs to
merle colored dogs will produce an all merle litter with no genetic defects.  **this is not entirely correct**.  
blindness or deafness -- and some Coolie breeders are saying blindness or deafness is just within certain
bloodlines of the Coolie, **this is also not correct - there are many reasons for visual and hearing problems**.

I have included comments and informational sites that can be read and studied for further knowledge.

Don't be mislead by some Kennels, research their information and find out the truth. Some Kennels are
saying anything to make a sale.  
Age of the Coolie Breed:

There is much controversy concerning the time of development of the Coolie breed. A few say the Coolie is the
oldest breed of herding dog from Australia. Research has proven this statement is not entirely correct.  They are
'one' of the oldest breeds, along with the Australian Working Kelpies, Australian Cattle Dogs, Australian Shepherds,
McNabbs, and other herding-type breeds.

Here are some excerpts (quoted exactly as it was printed) from ancestral research:

A few references to the "German Coolie," "German Koolie" or "German Collie" appear in various letters and articles
in working dog magazines and in a few books. The Koolie and the Smithfield exist in Australia to this day as working
dogs, not recognized by the bench show authorities (there is, however, a breed club for the Koolie). With regard to
the Koolie, the dog was "German" in that it was popular in an area of Australia where there were many German
settlers who used this dog, much as the Australian Shepherd is "Basque" due to Basque sheepherders using it in the
American West, rather than these breeds having their principal origin with dogs brought from Germany or the
Basque country. Photos of Koolies and Smithfields show strong resemblance to the Australian Shepherd in overall
form and color, although Koolies can also be shorthaired and prick-eared (as were many early Aussies) and
Smithfields can have Beardie-like coats. ~~
Linda Rorem
The "collie" dogs of these early pioneers were the ancestors of the Australian Koolie, the Kelpie and Australian
Cattle Dog. The early pioneers required a big, strong dog for mustering and moving huge herds of cattle and so the
Koolie evolved from the crossing of German and British "collies" with British Smithfields. The resultant offspring
produced dogs with shorter legs capable of working on the cattle and sheep trucks and were referred to as either
Australian Koolies or German Koolies (often spelt Coulie or Coolie which could have arisen from the derogatory term
"coolie", used to refer to immigrant workers in Australia, or to the accent that the Germans placed on the word
"Collie"). German immigrants favoured the south of the continent and in that area these working collies were referred
to as German Koolies.

Unfortunately the Koolie, like its Smithfield descendants, did not adapt well to the intense heat of the Australian
outback as they were too large and cumbersome, and their vociferous nature was not conducive to their work. A
recent revival of interest in the Koolie led to the formation of the first Australian Breed Club, in 2000. The committee
agreed to delete the "German" reference so the breed is now registered simply as the Koolie or Australian Koolie. ~~
Iris Combe and Pat Hutchinson
Deafness and Blindness in certain bloodlines?

Deafness and blindness can be caused by many factors. These factors include hereditary, chemical,
environmental, medical, illness, etc ...

Some Coolie breeders practice breeding merle to merle and some homozygous merles are produced in their litters.
They contend that the deafness is related to a certain bloodline and not caused by the homozygous merle pup.
Homozygous merles are normally born with an excessive amount of white, some have a white head, some have a
small amount of color on their head, and some have color on their ears, but go deaf later. The lack of pigment
(white) around the ears are the normal cause of deafness in dogs.

To read more about the possible causes of deafness in dogs, visit these links:

LSU - deafness

LSU - genetics

To read more about the possible causes of color related blindness in dogs, visit these links:

Lethal Whites

Australian Shepherd Colors

Again, don’t be mislead by some Kennels, research their information and find out
the truth. Some Kennels will say anything to make a sale.
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website may be reproduced, copied,
scanned, or taken without written
permission from the owner - Yata hae
Coolie Stud/Ida Parmer
Pureness proven?
Mars Veterinary has a DNA test for cross-bred dogs that they are claiming will show the breed of the dog for 3
generations.  This DNA test was created specifically for cross bred dogs and states such on their website.

There are many dogs that are the merle color that are not of the Coolie breed. There is a misconception that if a
Coolie tested negative for the mutation mdr1 gene, then it is a pure Coolie. This is absolutely not true. There are
many breeds that tested negative for this mutated gene. To read the article and see which breeds were tested, view
these links:



UC Davis

The University of California, Davis, California (USA) is currently conducting research on the genetic heritage of the
dog. To participate in this FREE research visit their site for more information:
UC Davis - canine

To read about a study on pureness, see this link:
Canine Pureness

To read about Achieving Genetic Health, see this link:
Genetic health
Coat Color:

Blue eyes can either be inherited or caused by coat color. A puppy receives one copy of it's genetic code from the
sire (male) and one copy from the dam (female), so saying a dog with "blue eyes has too much merle", is not correct.

Some Coolie breeders practice breeding merle color to merle color (both dogs being heterozygous for the merle color
pattern).  They deny that these dogs ever produce any solid colored or double merle offspring.  This is not
genetically feasible.  Every once in a while a person will be extremely lucky and produce an entire litter of merles from
the breeding of heterozygous merle (M/m) to heterozygous merle (M/m), but that is not the norm.  

ONLY way to produce an all merle colored litter is to:
  • be extremely lucky (when breeding two heterozygous merles)
  • breed a homozygous merle (M/M) to a heterozygous merle (M/m)
  • breed a homozygous merle (M/M) to a non-merle (m/m)  

If at any time, the merles produce a solid colored offspring, then neither one of them are homozygous merles.  A
homozygous merle will typically have more white on them than a heterozygous merle, be lighter in color (rather than
darker), and may be visual or hearing impaired.

To read more:
Coat color genetics of the Coolie

DNA testing - vetgen

DNA testing - Healthgene

Coat Color Research

DNA testing - Finland